In most cases where high blood pressure is diagnosed, the cause remains unclear. One review paper in the International Journal of Hypertension explains that this accounts for around 90% of all hypertension diagnosis and is usually referred to as essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension is diagnosed when a cause can be identified. Potential causes of secondary hypertension may include:
Blood pressure fluctuates throughout the day, so measuring it in the morning might yield a different number than, say, the afternoon. Conditions like stress and lack of sleep can also fluctuate blood pressure. Visiting your doctor might feel nerve-wracking, which can elevate your blood pressure and create a condition called white coat hypertension.
Certain commercial devices available in the market today help people gather data about their breathing rate and depth, relay the information back to them and play soothing music via headphones to help them relax. One such device quoted by the researchers was Resperate. I tend to think of such devices as basically a type of "assisted-biofeedback" therapy. Such devices could have a role to play in treating hypertension. 
What is a normal blood pressure? Blood pressure is essential to life because it forces the blood around the body, delivering all the nutrients it needs. Here, we explain how to take your blood pressure, what the readings mean, and what counts as low, high, and normal. The article also offers some tips on how to maintain healthy blood pressure. Read now
Eighty million U.S. adults, or one in three, have hypertension (1). Another one in three have prehypertension, defined as blood pressure in the range of 120–139/80–89 mmHg. In addition to costing $48.6 billion annually, hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, and stroke (1). Even prehypertension increases the risk of death from CVD (2). Because of its severity, hypertension requires immediate treatment, but prescription drugs may not be the answer.

If you injure yourself right at the start, you are less likely to keep going. Focus on doing something that gets your heart rate up to a moderate level. If you're physically active regularly for longer periods or at greater intensity, you're likely to benefit more. But don't overdo it. Too much exercise can give you sore muscles and increase the risk of injury.
Fish are a great source of lean protein. Fatty fish like mackerel and salmon are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which can lower blood pressure, reduce inflammation, and lower triglycerides. In addition to these fish sources, trout contains vitamin D. Foods rarely contain vitamin D, and this hormone-like vitamin has properties that can lower blood pressure.
If it’s even slightly high, we will recommend you take appropriate steps to lower it, such as adhering to the DASH diet (fresh vegetables, lean protein, whole grains, low salt, and low-fat dairy), losing weight, stopping smoking, exercising, and reducing stress. If those non-medical approaches don’t achieve the necessary results, we will prescribe medication.
How low should you go? Aim to keep your sodium intake below 1,500 mg for healthy blood pressure, recommends the American Heart Association. That’s about half of what most Americans consume per day. Going easy on the saltshaker can help, but you’ll make a bigger impact by watching the sodium count in packaged or processed foods, Obarzanek says. (Pay extra attention to bread and rolls, pizza, soup, cold cuts, poultry, and sandwiches, which tend to pack the most salt.) Then try these other simple ways to slash your salt intake.

For example, eating a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats can limit dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) deposits along the artery that contribute to high blood pressure. Limiting intake of processed foods can lower sodium intake and total cholesterol. This, in addition to exercise, can also help lead to weight loss. Research indicates that losing as little as nine pounds can have substantial impacts on blood pressure.


Editor’s Note: Considerable controversy exists about whether fat or cholesterol are, per se, drivers of atherosclerosis. They are implicated in some studies, while others indicate that quality of fat, and placement in a wider dietary pattern, may be more significant to ultimate impact. What seems clear, however, is that a diet high in animal products, sugar, and processed foods is often a recipe for high blood pressure and heart disease.

Exercise is the soulmate to eating right. You’re more likely to lose weight if you exercise and follow a healthy diet. Official recommendations call for at least half an hour of exercise most days of the week. The effects can be dramatic: Blood pressure drops of 4 to 9 points. Remember that exercise isn’t just going to the gym. It can be gardening, washing your car, or housework. But things that get your heart rate up -- aerobic activities -- like walking, dancing, jogging, riding your bike, and swimming are best for your heart.
If you have hypertension, ask your doctor if OSA could be behind it. (In addition to loud snoring, common symptoms include excessive daytime tiredness and early morning headaches.) Getting your sleep apnea under control could be helpful for improving your blood pressure, says Robert Greenfield, MD, Medical Director of Non-Invasive Cardiology & Cardiac Rehabilitation at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, CA.
I use a wrist cuff to measure my BP. I am consistently ( I mean every time) able to lower my BP by approximately twenty points, both values, from the initial reading. I do it with controlled breathing. I inhale deeply and hold it until it just begins to become uncomfortable, exhale slowly, and hold the exhale, until it becomes slightly uncomfortable, and then inhale slowly again, and hold it, repeating the process at least 3 times. Not only is the BP down, but the sensation is that of being physiologically calmer.
It’s a common question among our guests at the Pritikin Longevity Center, who are taught how devastating the high-salt U.S. diet is to our blood pressure and overall health. Searching for alternatives, people often ask: What about salt substitutes with potassium? And what about MSG? Isn’t it a bad choice? Here are answers, some of which may surprise you.
Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.

Olive leaf extract. In one 2008 study, supplementing with 1,000 mg of olive leaf extract daily for eight weeks caused a significant dip in both blood pressure and LDL ("bad cholesterol") in people with borderline hypertension. If you want to incorporate olive leaf extract as a natural adjunct to a nutritionally sound diet, you should look for fresh leaf liquid extracts for maximum synergistic potency. You can also prepare your own olive leaf tea by placing a large teaspoon of dried olive leaves in a tea ball or herb sack. Place it in about two quarts of boiling water and let it steep for three to 10 minutes. The tea should be a medium amber color when done.
Flax seed is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and has been shown in some studies to lower blood pressure. A recent review suggested taking 30–50 grams of whole or ground seeds per day for more than 12 weeks to get the best benefits. Flax seed may protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by reducing serum cholesterol, improving glucose tolerance, and acting as an antioxidant.
What these scientists found was that while drug treatments for mild hypertension may be effective at lowering blood pressure, they were not effective in reducing overall mortality. Put more bluntly, hypertension patients in these studies died at about the same rate whether they took medication or not. These findings reaffirm an important health principle: Treating the symptoms of disease is not the same thing as causing health.

Alternative therapies are increasingly receiving more attention for treatment of everything from heart disease to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and now high blood pressure (or hypertension). The overarching principle to always keep in mind, though, is that while it might be "cool and fashionable" to treat your maladies with alternative therapies, not all such treatments are backed by hard science. Some interventions work, some don't. And yes, they could have harmful side effects as well. The best and brightest of us have fallen gullible victims to mumbo-jumbo alternative therapies for various illnesses; Steve Jobs tryst with pancreatic cancer being a case in point. Long story short, approach every treatment (including conventional medicine) as a level-headed, scientific skeptic. 


A healthy diet is the first step in regaining control of high blood pressure, but don’t let the term “diet” fool you.  This is a lifelong commitment to healthy eating.  Based on the approach known as the DASH diet (dietary approaches to stop hypertension), patients should focus on consuming lean protein, whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, and low-fat dairy.  By doing so, systolic blood pressure (the top number) could be reduced by as much as 14 points.  Of course, what isn’t included is nearly as important as what is when it comes to a healthy diet.  Those with high blood pressure should also focus on keeping salt and sugar intake to a minimum. 
Blood pressure is a measurement of the force that blood applies to your arterial walls as it pumps from your heart throughout your body. It also represents how hard your heart is working to push the blood. When blood pressure is higher, it means the heart must work harder to push blood through your system. In turn, the risk of heart disease or heart attack increases.
Drugs and medication: Certain drugs and medication can also lead to high blood pressure. Some forms, like birth control, are associated with long-term high blood pressure, while common over-the-counter medications—typically painkillers like “Aspirin,” ibuprofen, “Advil,” and “Motrin”—can all lead to acute spikes. This could be due to the presence of caffeine.
Basil is a delicious herb that goes well in a variety of foods. It also might help lower your blood pressure. In rodents, basil extract has been shown to lower blood pressure, although only briefly. The chemical eugenol, which is found in basil, may block certain substances that tighten blood vessels. This may lead to a drop in blood pressure. More studies are needed.
Several Indian studies over the last few years have shown that Arjuna, in animals and in humans, reduces total cholesterol and increases HDL (“good” cholesterol). One study showed that this herb was as effective an antioxidant as vitamin E and that it reduced cholesterol in the human subjects quite substantially. Considering its benefit for cholesterol, it is not surprising that it lowers blood pressure; many cases of high blood pressure in the United States are caused by cholesterol accumulation in the arteries.
How low should you go? Aim to keep your sodium intake below 1,500 mg for healthy blood pressure, recommends the American Heart Association. That’s about half of what most Americans consume per day. Going easy on the saltshaker can help, but you’ll make a bigger impact by watching the sodium count in packaged or processed foods, Obarzanek says. (Pay extra attention to bread and rolls, pizza, soup, cold cuts, poultry, and sandwiches, which tend to pack the most salt.) Then try these other simple ways to slash your salt intake.

The stronger the heart, the more efficiently it can perform.  Those who are physically active and exercise regularly are far more likely to maintain healthy blood pressure than those who do not.  According to the American Heart Association, 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity three to four times per week is all it takes on average to help reduce high blood pressure.

AVC is also a detoxifier and can help your body fight off diseases and release free radicals that wreak havoc on your body on a daily basis, which also indirectly can help to reduce blood pressure. When you use apple cider vinegar for high blood pressure remedy, you are most likely giving your entire body a boost, not just treating your blood pressure issues.
There are many popular medical myths about high blood pressure. For example, many physicians believe that high blood pressure is an “inevitable consequence of aging;” that the “only viable treatment option for high blood pressure patients is medication”; that high blood pressure patients must take their medications “for the rest of their lives”; and, worst of all, that high blood pressure medications are “safe and effective.”
Don’t assume that your doctor is aware of these facts. If you are diagnosed with mild, high blood pressure, you likely will be prescribed medication, instructed that it is helpful, and told that you must take it for the rest of your life. But before accepting this potentially dangerous treatment, it may be to your advantage to seek answers to the following questions: “What caused my high blood pressure?” and “Can I remove those causes and reverse this condition?”
But the dark chocolate should be 60 to 70 percent cacao. A review of studies on dark chocolate has found that eating one to two squares of dark chocolate per day may help lower the risk of heart disease by lowering blood pressure and inflammation. The benefits are thought to come from the flavonoids present in chocolate with more cocoa solids. The flavonoids help dilate, or widen, your blood vessels (25).
Perhaps you’ve never given much thought to your blood pressure, especially if it’s been spot on for most of your life. But as you get older and deal with more stressful aspects of in life, it can affect your blood pressure. Maybe not quite high enough to require medication, but it may be something to keep an eye on it. And this can affect even those who eat well, exercise most days, and do all the right things to stay healthy.
Very curious to see if Chris has any thoughts on this; I have had similar experiences with over 400 mg of magnesium in any form.. I’ve tried various chelates versions. I’m also wary of mega-dosing with supplements. My father has tried all kinds of mega-doses of all these things over the last decade to get off meds and still ends up with scarily high bp after a month or so off meds. Everything in moderation and I think sometimes that has to include conventional medication. Side effects at this late stage in his life can’t be as bad as a potentially debilitating stroke 🙁

If you are insulin resistant, you'll definitely want to include weight training in your exercise program. When you work individual muscle groups, you increase blood flow to those muscles. Good blood flow will increase your insulin sensitivity. Depending on your physical condition when you embark on your exercise program, you may need to consult with a health care professional for help increasing to the intensity required to lower your insulin level. Exercise in combination with the supplement L-arginine has been shown to correct the abnormal functioning of blood vessels seen in people with chronic heart failure. However, I would view this more as a drug approach and not necessarily a supplement you would consider using for optimizing health in general. L-arginine probably works through its interaction with nitric oxide. I would consider it an adjunct, not a replacement, for coenzymeQ10, which is a well-proven therapy for heart failure.
As simple as it sounds, breathing is an effective technique to lower blood pressure. Slow breathing and meditative practices such as yoga can help decrease the stress hormones that elevate renin — a kidney enzyme that raises blood pressure. "Sit in a comfortable chair with armrests. Your body should be as relaxed as possible. Place one hand on a part of your chest or preferably your abdomen. Watch your hand rise and fall with each breath...feel the breath as it moves into your abdomen,” Dr. John M. Kennedy, a cardiologist in Los Angeles, Calif., and author of the book The Heart Health Bible told Medical Daily in an email.  This should be repeated seven times and can become a daily habit by doing deep breathing 10 minutes in the morning.
How does apple cider vinegar lower blood pressure exactly? This isn’t entirely known, but medical studies have shown that people who consumed apple cider vinegar in their daily meals showed lower levels in their blood pressure without changing anything else in their diets, according to recent medical reports. You can have the same results in simply adding apple cider vinegar to your daily diet.
Omega-3 fats are typically found in flaxseed oil, walnut oil and fish, with fish being by far the best source. Unfortunately, most fresh fish today contains dangerously high levels of mercury. Your best bet is to find a safe source of fish, or if this proves too difficult, supplement with a high quality krill oil, which has been found to be 48 times more potent than fish oil.

Sleep. Short and poor-quality sleep are both associated with raised blood pressure (40). On the other side of the spectrum, excessively long sleep may also be harmful. One study found increased blood pressure in those who got fewer than five hours of sleep per night and in those who averaged more than nine hours of sleep per night, when compared with people who slept around seven hours (41). I suspect that it’s not the long sleep itself that is the problem, but that some underlying condition is both increasing sleep requirement and raising blood pressure.

Flavanols an anti-inflammatory and heart-protective antioxidant found in raw cacao may protect against cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of stroke, and help improve blood circulation. Thus lowering your blood pressure. Cacao contains over 700 compounds and the complex antioxidants found in it known as polyphenols help reduce ‘bad cholesterol’ and prevent hardening of the arteries.
The reasons for this astonishing success are not yet entirely understood. Certainly, two of the major causes of high blood pressure are being addressed: excessive dietary salt is completely eliminated, and it is likely that some patients experience some reversal of the atherosclerosis process. However, Dr. Campbell has suggested that additional mechanisms may be partly responsible for fasting’s remarkable effects, such as the rapid reduction of a phenomenon known as “insulin resistance.”
Johns Hopkins researchers have identified the genes responsible for aortic ballooning and the sequence of events leading to aortic aneurysms. Dr. Hal Dietz currently conducts clinical trials of therapies for people with inherited aortic aneurysms to improve health and quality of life for these patients.Learn more about Dr. Deitz and his aortic ballooning therapies.
But weightlifting can also have long-term benefits to blood pressure that outweigh the risk of a temporary spike for most people. And it can improve other aspects of cardiovascular health that can help to reduce overall cardiovascular risk. The Department of Health and Human Services recommends incorporating strength training exercises of all the major muscle groups into a fitness routine at least two times a week.
Now I work with patients with high blood pressure every single day in my clinic. I’m board-certified chiropractic physician and people come into my office all the time with high blood pressure. And over the years I learned that traditional lifestyle changes do not have the answers for these patients. On top of that many hate the idea of taking drugs to manage their high blood pressure. 
Keep in mind that sea salt and kosher salt contain the same amount of sodium as table salt.[6] Salt substitutes contain potassium chloride, which is not safe for some people, so you may want to avoid it. Instead, look into sodium-free alternatives to replace salt in your diet, such as lemon juice, flavored vinegar, fresh herbs, and salt-free herb and spice blends.[7]
A normal blood pressure is usually defined as systolic pressure below 120 mmHg and diastolic pressure below 80mmHg. Systolic pressure is the measurement of blood pressure from your heart beats. Diastolic pressure is when the heart is at rest between beats. Unfortunately there is no cure for high blood pressure currently, but you can take steps to manage it even without medication. Here are 7 ways to lower your blood pressure naturally:
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Often, hypertension can improve with lifestyle changes. In some cases, high blood pressure can go down to normal levels with only lifestyle modifications, particularly if you have stage 1 hypertension (systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg to 159 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure 80 mmHg to 99 mmHg), or if you have elevated blood pressure (systolic blood of 120 mmHg to 129 mmHg and diastolic less than 80 mmHg).
The act of taking your own blood pressure won’t lower it, but getting to know your numbers can help you better understand what’s healthy and what’s not for you. “The first time patients have a high blood pressure reading in the doctor’s office, we don’t usually start treating right way,” says Dr. Goldberg. That’s because individual readings can vary, especially in potentially high-stress situations like a doctor’s visit.
Exercise is the soulmate to eating right. You’re more likely to lose weight if you exercise and follow a healthy diet. Official recommendations call for at least half an hour of exercise most days of the week. The effects can be dramatic: Blood pressure drops of 4 to 9 points. Remember that exercise isn’t just going to the gym. It can be gardening, washing your car, or housework. But things that get your heart rate up -- aerobic activities -- like walking, dancing, jogging, riding your bike, and swimming are best for your heart.

Talk to your doctor about adding supplements to your diet. Check with your doctor to see whether a natural remedy may help lower your blood pressure. Many natural remedies have scientific evidence to show that they can lower high blood pressure, but you should never attempt to replace your blood pressure medication without talking with your doctor.[16]
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is an extremely common disease. A little under a half, or 40% of all adults aged 25 years and over, have high blood pressure (most of them residing in the developed world). This number is about 30% for US adults over the age of 18. About 7.5 million people die every year around the world from consequences of high blood pressure. I guess you get my point...uncorrected high blood pressure is a big deal, and you don't want to ignore it! 
Listening to your favorite song not only will improve your feeling of well-being but also lower your blood pressure. A study published in the journal Netherland Heart Journal found musicians had lower blood pressure than non-musicians because their somatosensory nerve activity benefited their autonomic nervous system. If you’re not a musician, listening to music alone, especially classical, will do just as good.
Eating a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products (such as the DASH diet) while cutting back on foods that are high in saturated fat and cholesterol can significantly lower your blood pressure. One way to stick to a healthy diet is to write down everything you eat. Keeping a diary for even just a week can make people aware of their true eating habits.
Studying men with hypertension who came to Pritikin, scientists at UCLA found that within three weeks, the men had significantly healthier levels of blood pressure. In fact, those who arrived at Pritikin taking hypertension drugs left Pritikin two to three weeks later no longer needing their medications, or with their dosages significantly reduced.1
SJH provides a full range of care facilities including 16 acute care hospitals, home health agencies, hospice care, outpatient services, skilled nursing facilities, community clinics and physician groups. All of our hospital and home health entities are accredited by the Joint Commission. In our award-winning facilities, SJH maintains a "continuum of care," matched to the diverse needs of the urban centers, smaller cities and rural communities who depend on us every day.
Patients may be rushed and anxious when they’re in the doctor’s office, resulting in higher-than-normal blood pressure readings. Home monitors let patients measure and record blood pressure throughout the day for greater accuracy. Patients can keep a log of their numbers and bring the log and the monitor to their doctor’s appointment to check for accuracy.
Some of the risks of blood pressure-lowering medications include headaches, dizziness, depression, sleep problems, erectile dysfunction, and renal or cardiac dysfunction. Often, these side effects lead to additional prescription drugs like testosterone or Viagra. The good news is that dietary changes, lifestyle strategies, and supplements have the potential to reverse high blood pressure without the need for lifelong prescriptions.
In fact, a review of Figure 2 indicates that the most impressive results were observed with the most serious cases. In cases of “moderate” to “severe” hypertension (blood pressures of 174/93 or greater), the average reduction at the conclusion of treatment was a remarkable 46/15! For these cases, which medical practitioners generally would insist need lifetime medical intervention, the average exit blood pressure was 128/78, using no medication whatsoever!
When your blood pressure rises, your heart is working harder to pump blood to the rest of your body. This may lead to heart failure or a heart attack, especially in people with heart disease. Furthermore, the extra force exerted by blood may cause blood vessels to burst, resulting in bleeding. Blood vessels in the brain are especially likely to rupture, which can lead to a stroke.
Cayenne Pepper is probably the fastest way to lower high blood pressure. Cayenne pepper is a powerful vasodilator, which means it helps expand blood vessels and improve blood flow. This effect naturally lowers blood pressure levels by increasing the rate at which blood flows throughout the circulatory system, which in turn takes some of the pressure off arterial walls. Either mix one teaspoon of cayenne pepper with half a cup of lukewarm water or mix two tablespoons of raw organic honey with two teaspoons of cayenne pepper; boil them with eight ounces of water and drink when it is warm. A side note: Be careful how many Scoville Units your cayenne pepper is. I bought mine, 90,000 Scoville Units, and OMG. I thought I was going to breathe fire.
A healthy diet is the first step in regaining control of high blood pressure, but don’t let the term “diet” fool you.  This is a lifelong commitment to healthy eating.  Based on the approach known as the DASH diet (dietary approaches to stop hypertension), patients should focus on consuming lean protein, whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, and low-fat dairy.  By doing so, systolic blood pressure (the top number) could be reduced by as much as 14 points.  Of course, what isn’t included is nearly as important as what is when it comes to a healthy diet.  Those with high blood pressure should also focus on keeping salt and sugar intake to a minimum. 
Most types of exercise: aerobic, weight training, and isometric hand-grip exercises helped patients lower blood pressure, with people doing isometric hand-grip exercises showing the most blood pressure reduction (about 10 percent). This was greater than the benefit obtained from a mild aerobic exercise like walking. However, the researchers speculated that this could be related to the lack of intensity or shorter duration of walking done by the subjects. Some older studies have indicated that intense walking over 35 minutes done regularly confers the same cardiovascular benefits. Comparing various alternative approaches, exercise has some of the strongest evidence out there for lowering high blood pressure. 
Magnesium: Magnesium, which is present in nuts, seeds, avocado, and green leafy vegetables, has also been proposed as a natural way to reduce blood pressure. Supplements are also available in pill form. Studies show that higher levels of magnesium are associated with lower blood pressure, but it is still not completely clear whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship. 
Today's episode of the OPP we feature guest Joe Scola, who is the founder of Wise Ape Tea. They specialize in Adaptogenic teas, which regulate stress for your body. We get into some HEAVY Tea Topics like the weirdest blend of tea, the historic origins of tea, and discuss how adding in CBDs affects tea. Wise Ape also partners with many organizations, and for each tea sale they donate a chunk of the proceeds to these organizations which is awesome! Each tea is partnered with a specific charitable organization so go out there, buy your favorite tea, and contribute to a great cause! Two birds with one stone!
The act of taking your own blood pressure won’t lower it, but getting to know your numbers can help you better understand what’s healthy and what’s not for you. “The first time patients have a high blood pressure reading in the doctor’s office, we don’t usually start treating right way,” says Dr. Goldberg. That’s because individual readings can vary, especially in potentially high-stress situations like a doctor’s visit.
Once you know your resting heart rate, you can then determine your target training heart rate. Target heart rates let you measure your initial fitness level and monitor your progress in a fitness program. You do this by measuring your pulse periodically as you exercise and staying within 50 to 85 percent of your maximum heart rate. This range is called your target heart rate.
Start by eating nuts. Pistachio nuts, singled out among other nuts, seem to have the strongest effect on reducing blood pressure in adults. This is according to a recent review and scientific analysis of 21 clinical trials, all carried out between 1958 and 2013. The review appears online in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, a publication of the American Society for Nutrition.
Eighty million U.S. adults, or one in three, have hypertension (1). Another one in three have prehypertension, defined as blood pressure in the range of 120–139/80–89 mmHg. In addition to costing $48.6 billion annually, hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, and stroke (1). Even prehypertension increases the risk of death from CVD (2). Because of its severity, hypertension requires immediate treatment, but prescription drugs may not be the answer.

Heart damage leads to coronary artery disease, the narrowing of arteries that supply blood pressure to your heart. Overtime coronary artery disease leads to heart attacks and irregular heart rhythms. Damage to your heart could lead to an enlarged heart caused by forcing your heart to work harder than normal, leading to heart attack and sudden cardiac death. And lastly damage to your heart leads to heart 


To calculate your target training heart rate, you need to know your resting heart rate. Resting heart rate is the number of times your heart beats per minute when it's at rest. The best time to find your resting heart rate is in the morning after a good night's sleep and before you get out of bed. Typically, an adult’s resting heart rate is 60-100 beats per minute. However, for people who are physically fit, it's generally lower. Also, resting heart rate usually rises with age.
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